Get-Hotfix only lists operating-system-related hotfixes:

Get-HotFix 

In reality, it is just a thin wrapper around a WMI query which produces identical results:

Get-CimInstance -ClassName Win32_QuickFixEngineering 

A quick and more complete way of dumping all installed updates is querying the System event log:

Get-WinEvent @{
  Logname='System'
  ID=19
  ProviderName='Microsoft-Windows-WindowsUpdateClient'
} | ForEach-Object  {
  [PSCustomObject]@{
    Time = $_.TimeCreated
    Update  = $_.Properties.Value[0]
  }
}

Obviously, when the System event log was cleared, the results are no longer complete. Also, the log simply logs any update installation, so over time new updates can replace older updates.

To guarantee you get a complete list of currently installed updates, you’d have to ask the Windows Update Client to re-construct the list from the actual installed updates which takes a lot longer:

$result = (New-Object -ComObject Microsoft.Update.Session).CreateupdateSearcher().Search("IsInstalled=1").Updates |
  Select-Object LastDeploymentChangeTime, Title, Description, MsrcSeverity 

$result | Out-GridView -Title 'Installed Updates'

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